IGNOU AHE-01 English Free Solve Assignment For July 2022 & Jan 2023

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IGNOU AHE-01 English Free Solve Assignment

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Bachelor’s Degree Programme (B.Sc.)

Application-Oriented Course on Human Environment

Valid from 1st January 2023 to 31st December 2023

IGNOU AHE-01 English Free Solve Assignment

Below You Can See IGNOU AHE-01 English Free Solve Assignment:

1. Differentiate between the following pairs:
i) Expansive and stationary population histograms

Population histograms are graphical representations that show the distribution of individuals across different age groups or other demographic categories. They are commonly used in demography and population
studies to analyze population characteristics.

An expansive population histogram has a broad base and narrow top, indicating a high proportion of young individuals relative to the number of older individuals. This type of histogram is typical of populations with high fertility rates and low life expectancies. It suggests that the population is growing rapidly and may
continue to do so for some time.

On the other hand, a stationary population histogram has a relatively even distribution of individuals across different age groups, with little variation from one age group to the next. This type of histogram is typical of populations with low fertility rates and high life expectancies. It suggests that the population is not growing rapidly and may even be declining if the fertility rate is below the replacement rate.

Expansive population histograms are typically seen in developing countries with high birth rates and limited access to healthcare, education, and other resources that can improve life expectancy. In these populations, the high proportion of young individuals may strain social services and resources, leading to economic and social challenges.

In contrast, stationary population histograms are typical of developed countries with low fertility rates and
high life expectancies. In these populations, the proportion of older individuals is relatively high, which may lead to increased demand for healthcare, pensions, and other services for older adults.

ii) Food chain and Food web
The food chain and food web are two concepts used to describe how energy flows through an ecosystem.

A food chain is a linear sequence of organisms, starting with a producer, such as plants, and ending with
a top predator, such as a lion. Each organism in the food chain serves as a source of food for the organisms
above it. For example, a grasshopper eats grass, a frog eats the grasshopper, and a snake eats the frog. In a food chain, energy and nutrients are transferred from one organism to another.

A food web, on the other hand, is a more complex representation of the interrelationships between organisms in an ecosystem. It consists of many interconnected food chains that show the feeding relationships between multiple organisms. For example, a food web may show that a bird eats insects, and those insects eat plant leaves. The same bird may also eat seeds and fruits, which are produced by other plants. In a
food web, energy, and nutrients flow through multiple pathways and can be recycled as organisms eat and are eaten.

In summary, a food chain is a simple sequence of organisms, while a food web is a more complex network of interconnected food chains. While a food chain represents a single pathway for energy and nutrient flow, a food web shows the complex interrelationships between many different organisms in an ecosystem.

iii) Savanna and Tundra
Savannas and tundras are two distinct types of biomes that exist on Earth.

A savanna is a type of grassland biome characterized by scattered trees and shrubs. Savannas typically
have a hot and dry climate, with a rainy season and a dry season. The vegetation in savannas is adapted
to fire and grazing, with grasses dominating the landscape and trees and shrubs growing in clusters. Sav
annas are found in regions with tropical and subtropical climates, such as Africa, South America, and Australia.

A tundra, on the other hand, is a type of biome characterized by low temperatures and low precipitation. T
tundras are found in the northern latitudes of North America, Europe, and Asia, as well as at high elevations in mountain ranges. The vegetation in tundras is limited to low-growing shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lic
hens, due to the harsh environmental conditions. The soil in tundras is permanently frozen, known as
permafrost, which restricts the growth of trees and other larger plants.

In summary, savannas are hot and dry grassland biomes with scattered trees and shrubs, while tundras are cold and dry biomes with limited vegetation and frozen soil. Savannas are found in tropical and subtropical regions, while tundras are found in high latitudes and elevations. The environmental conditions in each biome have led to distinct adaptations in vegetation and wildlife.

iv) Industrial wastes and Domestic wastes
Industrial waste and domestic waste are two types of waste generated by different sectors of human activity

Industrial waste refers to the waste generated by industries, manufacturing plants, and other industrial activities. This type of waste can be hazardous and may contain toxic chemicals, heavy metals, and other pollutants. The industrial waste can come in various forms, such as solid, liquid, or gaseous waste. Examples of industrial waste include chemical waste, electronic waste, and medical waste.

Domestic waste, also known as household waste or municipal solid waste, refers to the waste generated
by households and other non-industrial sources. This type of waste is generally less hazardous than industrial waste and consists mainly of food waste, paper, plastic, glass, and other materials. Domestic waste
can be collected and disposed of through various methods, such as landfills, incineration, or recycling.

There are some key differences between industrial waste and domestic waste. Industrial waste is typically
generated in large quantities and requires specialized handling and disposal methods due to its hazardous nature. In contrast, domestic waste is generated in smaller quantities and can often be managed through local waste management systems.

v) Parasitism and Predation
Parasitism and predation are two different types of interactions between species in an ecosystem.

Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism, called the parasite, benefits at the expense of another
organism, called the host. Parasites usually live on or inside the host and derive nutrients or resources from the host’s body. Parasites may or may not kill the host, but they usually harm the host to some extent.
Examples of parasites include ticks, fleas, tapeworms, and mistletoe.

Predation, on the other hand, is a relationship in which one organism, called the predator, kills and eats another organism, called the prey. Predators are usually larger and stronger than their prey, and they use various methods to capture and kill their prey. Examples of predators include lions, tigers, wolves, and eagles, while examples of prey include zebras, rabbits, deer, and fish.

The main difference between parasitism and predation is that parasitism involves one organism living on
or inside another organism and benefiting at the expense of the host, while predation involves one organism killing and consuming another organism. In parasitism, the host is usually not killed immediately, while in predation, the prey is usually killed and eaten by the predator.

Another difference is that parasites usually have a long-term relationship with their host, while predators typically do not. Parasites may live on or inside their host for extended periods, while predators usually only
y interact with their prey for a short time.

In summary, parasitism and predation are two different types of ecological interactions. Parasitism involve
s one organism benefiting at the expense of another organism, while predation involves one organism kills
ng and eating another organism.

2. a) List any four effects of urbanization on the environment and describe any one of them.

Urbanization refers to the process of population concentration in urban areas, resulting in the growth of cities and towns. This process has several effects on the environment, including:

(i) Habitat destruction: As urban areas expand, natural habitats are often destroyed to make way for buildings, roads, and other infrastructure. This can have devastating consequences for the plants and animals that depend on these habitats for survival.

(ii) Increased pollution: Urbanization is often associated with increased air and water pollution, as a result
of increased traffic, industrial activities, and human population density. This can have serious health consequences for people living in urban areas.

(iii) Reduced biodiversity: As natural habitats are destroyed and replaced by urban infrastructure, biodiversity is often reduced. This can have negative consequences for ecosystem functioning and resilience.

(iv) Altered hydrology: Urbanization can alter the natural flow of water through an ecosystem, leading to in
creased flooding and erosion, as well as reduced groundwater recharge.

Habitat destruction – Habitat destruction refers to the process by which natural habitats are destroyed or altered due to human activities such as urbanization, deforestation, mining, and agriculture. As urban areas
expand, natural habitats are often destroyed to make way for buildings, roads, and other infrastructure. This can have devastating consequences for the plants and animals that depend on these habitats for survival. When natural habitats are destroyed or fragmented, species may not be able to find the resources they need to survive, such as food, water, and shelter. As a result, the loss of habitats can lead to a decline in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Habitat destruction is considered one of the major threats to the survival of many species, and it is important to protect and conserve natural habitats to ensure the continued health and well-being of our planet.

b) Diagrammatically depict the sulfur cycle.
The steps of the sulfur cycle:

(i) Sulphur is released into the atmosphere through natural processes such as volcanic activity and the de
cay of organic matter.

(ii) Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is formed when sulfur reacts with oxygen in the atmosphere.

(iii) Sulphur dioxide is converted into sulphuric acid (H2SO4) through a series of chemical reactions involving water, oxygen, and other compounds.

(iv) Sulphuric acid falls to the earth’s surface as acid rain, where it can be taken up by plants or run off int
o bodies of water.

(v) In aquatic ecosystems, sulfur can be converted into hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by certain bacteria.

(vi) Plants take up sulphur from the soil in the form of sulphate (SO4), and incorporate it into their tissues.

(vii) When plants and animals die, sulfur is released back into the soil through the process of decomposition.

(viii) Sulphur can also be released into the atmosphere through human activities such as burning fossil fu
els and industrial processes.

(ix) Microorganisms in the soil can convert sulfur compounds back into sulfur dioxide, completing the

The sulfur cycle plays an important role in the health and functioning of ecosystems, as sulfur is an essential element for the growth and development of many organisms.

(Click Here to Download The Diagram)

3. a) Describe the modes of transmission of communicable diseases.

Communicable diseases are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another through various modes of transmission. Some of the common modes of transmission include:

(i) Direct contact: This occurs when an infected person comes into physical contact with another person.
Examples include kissing, touching, sexual contact, and bites from infected animals.

(ii) Indirect contact: This occurs when an infected person contaminates an object or surface, and another
person comes into contact with that object or surface. Examples include touching contaminated surfaces,
sharing personal items such as towels or utensils, and contact with infected bodily fluids.

(iii) Airborne transmission: This occurs when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, releasing small droplets containing the infectious agent into the air. These droplets can be inhaled by another person and cause infection. Examples include measles, tuberculosis, and COVID-19.

(iv) Vector-borne transmission: This occurs when an infected animal, such as a mosquito or tick, bites a person and transmits the infectious agent into their bloodstream. Examples include malaria, dengue fever,
and Lyme disease.

(v) Food and waterborne transmission: This occurs when a person consumes contaminated food or water
containing an infectious agent. Examples include cholera, typhoid fever, and food poisoning.

Preventing the transmission of communicable diseases often involves basic hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, avoiding close contact
with infected individuals, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water. Vaccines and other
preventative measures can also be used to protect against certain communicable diseases.

b) Explain why it is essential for India to have developmental projects.

Developmental projects are essential for India for several reasons:

(i) Economic growth: Developmental projects can help boost the country’s economy by creating jobs, attracting investment, and increasing productivity. This can lead to higher incomes and a better standard of living for people in India.

(ii) Infrastructure development: Developmental projects can help improve the country’s infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, and power plants, which can facilitate economic growth and development.

(iii) Social development: Developmental projects can help address social issues such as poverty, inequality, and lack of access to basic services like healthcare and education. For example, projects that focus on
building schools, hospitals, and other social infrastructure can help improve access to these services.

(iv) Environmental sustainability: Developmental projects can be designed to promote environmental sustainability by using renewable energy sources, reducing waste, and protecting natural resources. This can
help India address issues related to climate change and environmental degradation.

Overall, developmental projects can play a critical role in improving the quality of life for people in India by
promoting economic growth, infrastructure development, social development, and environmental sustainability. However, it is important to ensure that these projects are implemented in a way that is sustainable and equitable and that they take into account the needs and perspectives of all stakeholders.

4. (a) Write about the Wild Life (Protection) Act of India in brief.

The Wildlife (Protection) Act of India is legislation that was enacted in 1972 with the aim of providing protection to wild animals and plants in India. The Act was amended in 1982, 1986, 1991, 1993, 2002 and 20
06 to strengthen its provisions and to include more species under its purview.

The main objective of the Act is to prevent the depletion of wildlife and to ensure their protection, conservation, and management. It provides for the establishment of protected areas such as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and conservation reserves, where the hunting or poaching of wildlife is prohibited. It also regulates the trade in wildlife and their products through a licensing system and prohibits the hunting, poaching, or capture of any species listed under Schedule I, II, III, or IV of the Act.

The Act provides for penalties for offenses such as hunting, poaching, trade in wildlife and their products,
and damage to wildlife habitats. The penalties vary depending on the nature of the offence and may include fines, imprisonment, or both. The Act also provides for the appointment of wildlife wardens, who are responsible for the protection and management of wildlife and their habitats.

The Wildlife (Protection) Act has played a significant role in protecting and conserving India’s rich biodiversity. However, there are still challenges in implementing the Act, including inadequate resources and capacity, lack of awareness and education among local communities, and insufficient enforcement. Efforts are
being made to address these challenges and strengthen the Act to ensure the continued protection of India’s wildlife.

(b) Give any four concepts of a sustainable society.

A sustainable society is one that strives to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Here are four concepts of a sustainable society:

(i) Conservation: A sustainable society emphasizes the conservation of natural resources such as water,
air, land, and biodiversity. This involves reducing waste, minimizing pollution, and promoting the efficient
use of resources.

(ii) Equity: A sustainable society ensures that social, economic, and environmental benefits are distributed
equitably among all members of society. This means that vulnerable populations, such as the poor and marginalized, are not left behind in the pursuit of sustainability.

(iii) Resilience: A sustainable society is resilient and adaptable to change. It promotes the use of renewable resources, encourages innovation and technology development, and fosters community-based solutions
to environmental and social problems.

(iv) Participation: A sustainable society promotes active participation and engagement of all stakeholders In decision-making processes. This involves creating opportunities for public dialogue, fostering collaboration among diverse groups, and empowering individuals and communities to take action for sustainability.

5. a) Write about the three types of air quality standards that are prescribed by the Central Pollution Contr
ol Board of India.

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India has prescribed three types of air quality standards in
order to assess and control air pollution levels in the country. These standards are as follows:

(i) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS): These are the primary standards that have been set
by the CPCB to regulate air quality across the country. They provide guidelines for the maximum allowable concentration of pollutants in the air, such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon
monoxide, and ozone. The NAAQS are designed to protect human health and the environment from the adverse effects of air pollution.

(ii) State Ambient Air Quality Standards (SAAQS): In addition to the NAAQS, each state in India is also required to develop its own ambient air quality standards based on local environmental conditions, health concerns, and economic considerations. The SAAQS may be more stringent than the NAAQS in order to address specific local issues, but cannot be less stringent.

(iii) Emission Standards: The CPCB has also established emission standards for specific sources of air pollution, such as vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes. These standards regulate the amount of
pollutants that can be emitted from these sources, and are designed to promote the use of cleaner technologies and practices.

The implementation and enforcement of these air quality standards is critical for the protection of public health and the environment. The CPCB regularly monitors air quality across the country to ensure that these standards are being met, and takes action against violators in order to reduce air pollution levels.

b) What collective strategy needs to be adopted by the countries of the Indian subcontinent in order to
manage the environment of the region?

The countries of the Indian subcontinent, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, share a common environment and face similar environmental challenges. In order to effectively manage the environment of the region, a collective strategy needs to be adopted that involves the following measures:

(i) Cooperation and Collaboration: The countries of the Indian subcontinent need to work together and collaborate on issues related to environmental management. This includes sharing data and information, developing joint initiatives and programs, and establishing regional networks and partnerships.

(ii) Sustainable Development: The countries need to adopt a sustainable development approach that balances economic growth with environmental protection. This involves promoting renewable energy sources,
implementing green technologies, and promoting sustainable land use practices.

(iii) Environmental Governance: The countries need to establish effective environmental governance mechanisms that ensure compliance with environmental regulations and standards. This includes strengthening regulatory frameworks, improving enforcement mechanisms, and promoting public participation and engagement.

(iv) Climate Change Adaptation: The countries need to work together to adapt to the impacts of climate change, such as rising sea levels, increased frequency of extreme weather events, and changing patterns of
precipitation. This involves developing adaptation strategies and plans, investing in climate-resilient infrastructure, and promoting community-based adaptation approaches.

(v) Biodiversity Conservation: The countries need to prioritize the conservation of biodiversity, which is a crucial resource for the region’s ecological and socio-economic systems. This involves protecting natural habitats, promoting sustainable use of resources, and strengthening conservation efforts.

In summary, a collective strategy that promotes cooperation, sustainable development, effective environment
governance, climate change adaptation, and biodiversity conservation is necessary to manage the environment of the Indian subcontinent and ensure the well-being of its people and ecosystems.

6. Write short notes on the following:

i) Bhopal gas tragedy

The Bhopal gas tragedy was a catastrophic industrial accident that occurred on the night of December 2-3
, 1984, in the city of Bhopal, India. It was caused by a massive release of toxic gases from the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of people and long-term health effects for hundreds of thousands more.

The gas leak occurred when water entered a storage tank containing 42 tonnes of methyl isocyanate (MI
C), a highly toxic gas used in the manufacture of pesticides. The water caused a chemical reaction that resulted in the sudden release of a large amount of gas into the air. The gas, which included MIC and other
toxic chemicals, spread rapidly throughout the surrounding areas, exposing thousands of people to its deadly effects.

The immediate impact of the disaster was devastating, with thousands of people dying within days of the
gas leak. Many others suffered from respiratory and other health problems, including blindness, neurological damage, and cancer, due to their exposure to the toxic gas. The long-term effects of the disaster continue to be felt by the survivors and their families, who have struggled to obtain compensation and support
from the government and Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemicals).

The Bhopal gas tragedy was a wake-up call for the Indian government and the international community to
prioritize the safety of workers and communities in industrial settings. It led to changes in regulations and
safety standards for hazardous industries in India and globally. However, the legacy of the disaster continues to raise questions about corporate responsibility, accountability, and justice for the victims and their families.

ii) The three-cell air circulation model for each hemisphere of the earth

The three-cell air circulation model is a conceptual model that describes the movement of air masses in each hemisphere of the Earth. This model is based on the principles of atmospheric pressure and the Cori
olis effect and is used to explain the prevailing wind patterns and climate zones in each hemisphere.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the three-cell air circulation model consists of the following cells:

(i) Polar Cell: This cell is located at the North Pole and is characterized by cold, dense air sinking and flow
ing southward towards the subpolar low-pressure zone.

(ii) Ferrel Cell: This cell is located between the polar and subtropical cells and is characterized by warm ai
r rising at the subpolar low-pressure zone and flowing poleward towards the polar cell, while cold air sinks
and flows towards the subtropical high-pressure zone.

(iii) Subtropical Cell: This cell is located at the Tropic of Cancer and is characterized by warm, moist air ris
ing and flowing towards the equator, while dry air sinks and flows towards the subtropical high-pressure z

In the Southern Hemisphere, the three-cell air circulation model is similar but with the cells rotating in the
opposite direction due to the Coriolis effect. The cells are as follows:

(i) Polar Cell: This cell is located at the South Pole and is characterized by cold, dense air sinking and flowing northward towards the subpolar low-pressure zone.

(ii) Ferrel Cell: This cell is located between the polar and subtropical cells and is characterized by warm air rising at the subpolar low-pressure zone and flowing poleward towards the polar cell, while cold air sinks
and flows towards the subtropical high-pressure zone.

(iii) Subtropical Cell: This cell is located at the Tropic of Capricorn and is characterized by warm, moist air
rising and flowing towards the equator, while dry air sinks and flows towards the subtropical high-pressure

The three-cell air circulation model is a simplified representation of the complex atmospheric processes that occur in each hemisphere. It provides a useful framework for understanding the general patterns of air
movement and weather in different regions of the world and is an important tool for meteorologists and climatologists.

iii) Effect of air pollution on animals

Air pollution has a significant impact on the health and well-being of animals, including both domestic and
wild species. Here are some of the effects of air pollution on animals:

(i) Respiratory Problems: Just like humans, animals can suffer from respiratory problems such as asthma,
bronchitis, and pneumonia as a result of exposure to air pollution. Polluted air can irritate and inflame the
lungs, causing difficulty breathing and decreased lung function.

(ii) Reproductive Problems: Air pollution can also affect the reproductive health of animals. Studies have shown that exposure to air pollution can reduce fertility and cause abnormalities in the reproductive system
s of animals, leading to reduced breeding success.

(iii) Neurological Effects: Air pollution can also have neurological effects on animals. Exposure to pollutants such as lead and mercury can cause neurological damage and behavioral changes, affecting the ability
of animals to navigate, forage, and communicate with each other.

(iv) Reduced Lifespan: Exposure to air pollution can also reduce the lifespan of animals. Studies have shown that animals living in polluted environments have a higher risk of developing chronic diseases, cancers, and other health problems that can reduce their lifespan.

(v) Habitat Destruction: Air pollution can also indirectly affect animals by destroying their habitats. Polluted
air can harm vegetation and soil, leading to the destruction of ecosystems and the displacement of wildlife.

(vi) Endangerment and Extinction: In addition to the direct and indirect effects of air pollution on animals, it
can also contribute to the endangerment and extinction of species. As animals struggle to adapt to polluted environments, their populations can decline, leading to a loss of biodiversity.

Overall, air pollution is a serious threat to the health and survival of animals. It is important to take measures to reduce air pollution in order to protect not only human health but also the health and well-being of animals and the ecosystems they depend on.

iv) Land as a non-living resource

Land is considered a non-living resource as it does not possess life, growth or reproduction abilities. How
ever, it plays a crucial role in supporting life on earth and provides a range of resources that are essential
for human survival and economic activities.

Land provides a foundation for buildings, roads, and other infrastructure that are essential for human activities such as housing, transportation, and commerce. It is also a source of raw materials such as minerals
, ores, and fossil fuels that are used to power industries and produce goods.

Moreover, the land also supports biodiversity and ecological services that are critical to human well-being. Healthy soils support plant growth, which in turn provides food and other resources for human consumption. The land also provides a habitat for wildlife, helps regulate the earth’s climate, and filters water as it flows through watersheds.

However, human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization have put significant pressure on land resources, leading to land degradation, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity. Climate change also exacerbates the pressure on land resources, leading to soil degradation, desertification, and loss
of agricultural productivity.

To ensure the sustainability of land resources, it is essential to adopt practices that promote land conservation and restoration, such as afforestation, sustainable agriculture, and land-use planning. This can help
maintain the ecological services provided by the land and ensure that it continues to support human activities
in a sustainable manner.

7. (a) Describe landfill disposal of hazardous wastes.

Landfill disposal of hazardous wastes is a method of disposing of hazardous wastes by burying them underground in specially designed landfills. This is done to minimize the potential risks associated with hazardous waste and to prevent contamination of soil and groundwater.

The landfill disposal of hazardous wastes involves the following steps:

(i) Site Selection: The first step is to select an appropriate location for the landfill. The site should be away
from residential areas and water sources to minimize the risk of contamination. The site should also have
stable geology and be able to support the weight of the landfill.

(ii) Design and Construction: The landfill must be designed and constructed with multiple layers of protective barriers to prevent hazardous wastes from leaching into the soil and groundwater. The base of the landfill is lined with an impermeable liner such as clay or synthetic materials, followed by a layer of sand or gravel, and then another layer of liner. The sides of the landfill are also lined with a similar system to prevent
the hazardous waste from escaping.

(iii) Transportation and Disposal: Hazardous wastes are transported to the landfill site in specially designed containers and are then carefully placed in the landfill. The waste is compacted and covered with soil, preventing it from being exposed to air and preventing contamination of soil and groundwater.

(iv) Monitoring: Landfills are continuously monitored for potential leaks or other environmental impacts. Th
e monitoring includes regular testing of soil, groundwater, and air quality to ensure that the landfill is not causing contamination.

Landfill disposal of hazardous wastes is a complex and highly regulated process. It is important to ensure
that hazardous wastes are disposed of in a safe and environmentally responsible manner to minimize the
potential risks to human health and the environment.

(b) With the help of suitable examples, discuss how employment patterns change due to developmental activities.

Developmental activities such as industrialization, urbanization, and infrastructure development have significant impacts on employment patterns, often leading to changes in the type and availability of jobs.

One example of this is the shift from traditional agricultural jobs to industrial and service sector jobs. As countries undergo industrialization and urbanization, traditional agricultural jobs become less common and a
re replaced by jobs in manufacturing, construction, and other industries. For example, in India, the proport
ion of the population engaged in agriculture has declined from around 60% in the 1950s to around 43% in
2020, with many farmers leaving agriculture for jobs in other sectors.

Another example of changes in employment patterns due to developmental activities is the rise of service
sector jobs. As countries develop, service sector jobs such as those in education, healthcare, and retail become more prevalent, often replacing traditional manufacturing jobs. For example, in the United States, the service sector now accounts for around 80% of employment, compared to around 50% in the 1950s.

8. (a) Discuss how organic farming can be used to improve land quality.

Organic farming is an agricultural method that relies on natural and sustainable practices to grow crops without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, or genetically modified organisms. Organic farming can help to improve land quality in several ways.

Firstly, organic farming methods promote the use of natural soil amendments such as compost, manure,
and cover crops. These organic amendments improve soil structure, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity, which in turn leads to better crop growth and higher yields. Organic amendments also increase the soil’s ability to retain carbon, which helps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change.

Secondly, organic farming methods minimize the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, which can degrade soil quality over time. Synthetic fertilizers often contain high levels of nitrogen, which can contribute to soil acidification, nutrient imbalances, and erosion. Pesticides can also harm soil biodiversity and reduce the soil’s ability to support healthy plant growth. By reducing or eliminating the use of synthetic inputs, organic farming helps to maintain and improve soil quality.

Thirdly, organic farming practices promote crop diversity and rotation, which can help to improve soil health and reduce the risk of pests and diseases. Crop rotation involves planting different crops in a specific or
der to help prevent soil-borne diseases, reduce pest populations, and maintain soil fertility. Crop diversity
also encourages the growth of beneficial microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria, which help to decompose organic matter and cycle nutrients in the soil.

Finally, organic farming practices encourage the use of conservation tillage techniques, such as no-till or reduced tillage. These practices help to reduce soil erosion, improve water infiltration, and preserve soil structure and organic matter.

(b) Explain why India became the cradle of cultural exchange between East, West, Central Asia and Sout
h East Asia?

India has been the cradle of cultural exchange between East, West, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia due
to several historical, geographical, and cultural factors.

Firstly, India’s location at the crossroads of Asia made it a natural meeting point for traders, travelers, and
scholars from different parts of the world. The ancient Silk Road, which connected China to Europe, passed through India, leading to the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultures.

Secondly, India’s rich cultural heritage and traditions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, attracted scholars and pilgrims from different parts of the world. For example, Buddhism originated in India and spread to other parts of Asia, leading to the establishment of Buddhist monasteries and universities in countries such as Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Thailand.

Thirdly, India’s colonial history, particularly it’s period of British rule, led to the exchange of ideas and cultures between India and the West. British colonialism brought Western education, values, and institutions to
India, leading to the emergence of a new class of Indian intellectuals who were exposed to Western ideas and literature.

Fourthly, India’s strategic location in the Indian Ocean region has made it an important center of maritime
trade and cultural exchange. India’s ports, such as Mumbai and Chennai, have been important trading centers for centuries, connecting India to Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Middle East.

In conclusion, India’s location, cultural heritage, colonial history, and strategic importance have made it a
cradle of cultural exchange between East, West, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. India’s rich cultural diversity and openness to new ideas and influences have enabled it to play a significant role in shaping the cultural, intellectual, and spiritual traditions of the region and the world.

9. a) Briefly discuss the concept of the new global economic system for the long-term survival of the human race.

The concept of a new global economic system for the long-term survival of the human race involves creating a sustainable and equitable economic system that meets the needs of both present and future generations while also preserving the health of the planet.

This new economic system would be based on principles of sustainability, social justice, and shared prosperity. It would prioritize the protection and restoration of the natural environment, including biodiversity, cl
imate stability, and ecosystem services.

In order to achieve this, the new economic system would need to incorporate policies and practices that promote resource efficiency, waste reduction, and the use of renewable energy sources. It would also need
to prioritize investments in green infrastructure, such as public transportation, renewable energy, and sustainable agriculture.

Social justice would also be a key component of this new economic system. It would prioritize the fair distribution of wealth, income, and resources, as well as the protection of human rights, labor rights, and gender equality.

In terms of shared prosperity, the new economic system would prioritize cooperation and collaboration among nations, as well as the sharing of knowledge, technology, and resources. It would also promote inclusive economic growth and development, particularly in developing countries, to ensure that all people have
access to basic needs such as food, water, healthcare, education, and housing.

Overall, the concept of a new global economic system for the long-term survival of the human race involves a fundamental transformation of the way we produce, consume, and distribute goods and services. It requires a shift towards a more sustainable, equitable, and resilient economic system that balances the needs of people, the planet, and future generations.

b) Write about the Environment (Protection) Act of India.

The Environment (Protection) Act of India was enacted in 1986 with the objective of providing for the protection and improvement of the environment and for the prevention of hazards to human beings, other living creatures, plants, and property. The act provides a framework for the central government to coordinate
and enforce environmental policies and laws in India.

The Environment (Protection) Act empowers the central government to:

-Take measures to protect and improve the quality of the environment
-Prevent and control environmental pollution
-Protect and conserve wildlife and natural resources
-Regulate and manage hazardous substances
-Regulate environmental impact assessments for developmental activities
-The act also establishes the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and State Pollution Control Boards (
SPCBs) to monitor and enforce environmental laws and regulations. These bodies are responsible for con
ducting environmental impact assessments, issuing permits, and monitoring pollution levels.

The Environment (Protection) Act includes provisions for penalties and fines for non-compliance with environmental regulations. It also allows for the closure of industries that are found to be causing environmental damage or pollution.

Over the years, the Environment (Protection) Act has been amended several times to reflect changing environmental concerns and priorities. In 1991, the act was amended to include provisions for regulating hazardous wastes, and in 1996, it was amended to include provisions for protecting the ozone layer.

Overall, the Environment (Protection) Act of India has played a crucial role in regulating and protecting the
environment in India. It has helped to raise awareness about environmental issues and has empowered the government to take action against environmental violations. However, challenges remain in terms of enforcing environmental regulations and ensuring compliance by industries and individuals.


FAQs : (IGNOU AHE-01 English Free Solve Assignment)

1. What are IGNOU Solved Assignments?

IGNOU Solved Assignments are prepared solutions to the assignment questions provided by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) for various courses. These assignments are designed to assess students’ understanding of the course material and are an integral part of the evaluation process.

2. How can I access IGNOU Solved Assignments?

IGNOU Solved Assignments can be easily accessed online. There are several websites and platforms where you can find and download the solved assignments for your specific course. Additionally, the university’s official website may also provide links to access these assignments.

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The availability of free IGNOU Solved Assignments may vary depending on the source. Some websites or platforms may offer certain solved assignments for free, while others may require a nominal fee for accessing them. It’s essential to check the authenticity and credibility of the source before downloading any solved assignments.

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No, submitting downloaded IGNOU Solved Assignments as they are would be considered plagiarism and a violation of academic integrity. The purpose of these assignments is to assess your understanding and knowledge of the course material. It is crucial to use the solved assignments as reference material and then create your responses in your own words.

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IGNOU Solved Assignments can be used as study aids to comprehend the assignment questions better and learn how to structure your responses effectively. Analyze the solutions provided, understand the concepts, and then attempt the assignments independently. It is essential to grasp the subject matter genuinely to perform well in examinations.

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Yes, IGNOU Solved Assignments are usually mandatory and carry weightage in the overall evaluation of your course. It is essential to submit these assignments within the stipulated deadlines to avoid any negative impact on your final grades.

7. Can I seek help from others to solve the assignments?

While discussing the course material and seeking clarification from peers or tutors is acceptable, copying or directly replicating solutions from others is not permitted. Plagiarism is a serious offense and can lead to severe consequences, including academic penalties.

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If you encounter challenges while attempting IGNOU Solved Assignments, it is recommended to seek help from your course coordinator, tutors, or study center. They can provide valuable guidance and support to clarify your doubts and help you complete the assignments effectively.

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Yes, IGNOU Solved Assignments are specific to each course and may vary from one academic session to another. It is essential to ensure that you download the correct assignments corresponding to your course and session to avoid any discrepancies.

10. Can I submit handwritten IGNOU Solved Assignments?

Most courses prefer typed assignments, but it is essential to check the specific guidelines provided by your course coordinator. Some courses may accept handwritten assignments, but make sure they are neat, legible, and organized.

Remember, IGNOU Solved Assignments are valuable tools to enhance your learning experience and academic performance. Approach them with dedication, integrity, and a willingness to learn, and you will reap the benefits they offer in your academic journey.


The advantages of studying IGNOU solved assignments are abundant. They offer the convenience of easy accessibility, comprehensive solutions, and cost-effectiveness, empowering students to enhance their academic pursuits effectively. Furthermore, these assignments serve as invaluable reference material and contribute to saving valuable time, making them an essential component of a well-rounded and successful learning experience. Embracing IGNOU Solved assignments can lead to a more rewarding educational journey, encouraging lifelong learning and academic excellence.


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